||Wan Y. Shih, Ph.D.
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Professor, School of Biomedical Engineering, Science & Health Systems
Professor, Materials Science and Engineering
Office: Monell 104 Email: email@example.com
Phone: 215.895.2325 Fax: 215.895.4983
Personal Web Page: Click Here to Visit Personal Web Page
Laboratory Web Page: Click Here to Visit Laboratory Web Page
Piezoelectric microcantilever biosensors development, piezoelectric finger development, quantum dots development, tissue elasticity imaging, piezoelectric microcantilever force probes.
WAN Y. SHIH
School of Biomedical Engineering, Science & Health Systems
3141 Chestnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Phone: (215) 895-2325
Fax: (215) 895-6760
1984 Ph.D in Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43210
Thesis Advisor: Prof. D. Stroud
Thesis Title: Theory of Superconducting Arrays in a Magnetic Field
1976 B.S. in Physics, Tsing-Hua University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan, ROC
2006-present Associate Professor, School of Biomedical Engineering, Science & Health Systems, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1993-2006 Research Associate Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
1993-99 Research Scientist, Princeton Materials Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey.
1985-92 Research Scientist, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
1984-85 Postdoctoral Research Associate, Materials Research Laboratory and Department
of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
1982-84 Graduate Research Associate, Materials Research Laboratory and Department of
Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
1979-82 Graduate Teaching Associate, Department of Physics, Ohio State University
1978-79 Research assistant, Ion-Implantation Laboratory, Tsing-Hua University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
1976-78 Physics Teacher, Hong-Zen Girls' Middle School, Chia-Yi, Taiwan.
AWARDS: The 1999 Edward C. Henry Electronics Division Best Paper Award of the
American Ceramic Society for ˇ§Electromechanical Behavior of PZT-Brass Unimorphs,ˇ¨ J. Am Ceram. Soc. 82, 1733-1740 (1999) by X. Li, W. Y. Shih, I. A. Aksay, and W.-H. Shih.
FUNDING: TOTAL $5.9 M
1. (Co-PI) Piezoelectric Biosensor for Anthrax Detection, PI: B. Onaral, funded by DOT, $750,000, 4/1/2006-3/31/2007.
2. (PI) Nanotechnology Institute Core Project: Array Piezoelectric Microcantilever Biosensors, funded by Ben Franklin Nanotechnology Institute, Philadelphia, $100,000. 1/1/2005-12/31/2005.
3. (Co-PI) Nanotechnology Institute Seed Project: Environmentally Friendly and Biocompitable QD, PI: Wei-Heng Shih, funded by Ben Franklin Nanotechnology Institute, Philadelphia, $30,000. 1/1/2005-12/31-2005.
4. (Co-PI) Piezoelectric Biosensor for Anthrax Detection, PI: B. Onaral, funded by DOT, $1,000,000, 3/1/2005-2/28/2006.
5. (Co-PI) Portable Array Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors for Chemical Terrorism Agent Detection, PI: W.-H. Shih, funded by NSF, $200,000, 9/1/2004-8/31/2006.
6. (Co-PI) Piezoelectric Biosensor for Anthrax Detection, PI: B. Onaral, funded by DOT, $500,000, 8/1/2004-2/28/2005.
7. (Co-PI) Molecular and Structural Mechanisms, Detection and Antagonism of Anthrax Toxins, PI: I Chaiken, funded by Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, $75,000, 6/1/2004-11/30/2004.
8. (PI) Quantitative Array Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors, funded by NIH, $1,056,000, 10/1/02-9/30/05.
9. (PI) Ultrasensitive Pathogen Quantification in Drinking Water Using Highly Piezoelectric PMN-PT Microcantilevers, funded by EPA, $400,000, 1/1/2002-12//31/2005.
10. (PI) Biomolecular and Cell Detection Using Piezoelectric Cantilevers, funded by Ben Franklin Nanotechnology Institute, Philadelphia, PA, $147,500, 8/02-7/04.
11. (Drexel PI) Piezoelectric Microcantilever With Nanoscale Coating: a Technology Breakthrough funded by NASA, $405,000, 2001-2004.
12. (PI) Ultrasensitive High-Temperature Selective Gas Detection Using Piezoelectric Microcantilevers, funded by DOE, $50,000, 10/02-9/03.
13. (PI) Femtogram Biomolecular Recognition Using Piezoelectric Cantilevers funded by NSF, $100,000, 9/01/2001-8/31/2002.
14. (Co-PI) Study on the Gelation, Consolidation, and Rheology of Sol-Gel Coated Ceramic Suspensions, funded by NSF, $259,463, 1997-2001.
5 Ph.D.ˇ¦s and 4 MS granted, 6 senior design projects, 8 current Ph.D students
POSTDOCTORAL SCHOLARS SPONSORED:
1 postdoc, Dr. Jeong Woo Yi
1. Highly piezoelectric mcirocantilever (PEMS) for biological and chemical sensing
Piezoelectric microcantilevers (PEMS) consisted of a highly piezoelectric layer bonded to a nonpiezoelectric layer are tiny mechanical resonators whose resonance can be excited and detected by simple electrical means. Receptors specific to the target antigens can be immobilized on the PEMS surface. Binding of the target antigen to the PEMS surface increases the PEMS mass and decreases the PEMS resonance frequency. Detection of the target antigen is achieved by monitoring the PEMS resonance frequency shift. Because PEMS uses electrical signal for actuation and detection, they can be easily set up for simultaneous array sensing of multiple antigens. Furthermore, the sensor and all necessary electronics can be easily portable in such broad ranging applications as bioreactor monitoring and environmental sensing. There are two PEMS systems currently under development in our laboratory: lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate solid solution (PMN-PT) freestanding-film-based PEMS and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sol-gel-thin- film based PEMS. Currently we are working closely with Banu Onaral, Kambiz Pourrezaei, and R. Lec of BioMed on an anthrax detector for public safety.
1.1. PMN-PT/tin PEMS-- PMN-PT freestanding films were developed in our laboratory which exhibited a giant electric field enhanced piezoelectric coefficient larger than that of specially-cut single crystals. Two US patent applications have been filed related to this development. Using PMN-PT freestanding films less than 8 ?m in thickness, PEMS smaller than 300 ?m in length were fabricated by simple wire-saw cutting, offering low-cost and yet highly sensitive PEMS for various biological and chemical detection. Coupled to antibodies, current PMN-PT/tin PEMS 300 ?m in length with 10-14 g/Hz sensitivity were demonstrated in in-water, in-situ, real-time quantification of E. coli, Salmonella t., Bacillus anthraces, and Bacillus globigii with better than 30 total cells sensitivity in less than 1 ml of liquid and less than 10 min of time. They were also demonstrated in real-time, in-liquid detection of proteins, e.g., PSA and Her2 with 1 ng/ml sensitivity in less than 1 ml of liquid and less than 10 min. Selective receptors were also developed for nerve gas simulant, and vapor of explosives.
1.2. PZT/SiO2 PEMS---Using sol-gel deposition and silicon-based microfabrication techniques, we have also succeeded in fabricating highly piezoelectric PZT/SiO2 PEMS less than 60 ?m in length with Q values ranging 120-320 and with 10-16 g/Hz sensitivity. Next in the pipeline are PZT/SiO2 PEMS less than 20 ?m in length with 10-18 g/Hz, which will afford single protein and single DNA sensitivity in real time in situ detection. Such unprecedented sensitivity will open up many opportunities for proteomics and other applications.
1.3. Direct in-air detection of air-borne pathogens and influenzaˇXThere are no known techniques at the moment that can detect air-borne pathogens directly from aerosols due to insufficient sensitivities. Because of the unprecedented high sensitivities of the PEMS under development, in addition to in-liquid detection, we are currently exploring in-air detection of air-borne cells and viruses such as influenza and M. tuberculosis directly from aerosols. The ability to detect air-borne pathogens directly in air will permit rapid mitigation of the spread of the diseases.
2. Piezoelectric Finger for tissue stiffness measurement/imaging
Piezoelectric fingers (PEF) are piezoelectric cantilever sensors offering all-electrical tissue-stiffness measurement (electronic palpation). The technique uses simple electrical means for both actuation and detection and can be easily portable. Measurement of tissue elastic properties is achieved by simply placing a PEF on a tissue much like palpation.
2.1. Breast Cancer Imaging and Differentiation---Preliminary results in real breast tissues indicated that PEF of 8 mm in width was able to detect a small satellite cancer 3 mm in the smallest dimension that was not detected by mammography, ultrasound, and the physicianˇ¦s palpation preoperatively. Such sensitivity was also better than the current commercially available tactile breast cancer detector. With suitable tip geometry, a PEF can measure tissue shear modulus under shear in addition to elastic modulus under compression. No existing techniques examine tissue stiffness both under compression and under shear. No existing techniques can differentiate malignant tumor from benign one. The ability of PEF sensors to detect tissue stiffness both under shear and under compression offers a unique opportunity to probe tumor interfacial properties for cancer malignancy screening non-invasively. Preliminary breast tissue measurements indicated that the ratio of the shear modulus over Youngˇ¦s modulus was indeed higher over a malignant tumor than the surrounding tissues as well as benign tumors. We have been working with Dr. Ari Brooks of DUCOM on this research.
2.2. Prostate cancer detection---Prostate cancer is also stiffer than its surrounding tissues. Currently, prostate cancer relies on digital examination for screening, which has a 50% false positive/negative rate. Potentially, PEF can be applied for prostate cancer detection. What we have learned in the breast cancer measurement will be very useful in applying PEF to prostates.
2.3. Skin elasticity characterization---Another area of interest is the measurement of skin elasticity. Currently, there is no instrument that can reliably measure the skin elasticity in-vivo. Because we can control the probe depth of a PEF, it has the potential to unambiguously determine the elasticity of the skin alone. An in-situ skin elasticity meter is of interest to the cosmetics industry. It is also of interest for artificial skin monitoring.
2.4. Miniaturized PEF for cellular and molecular elasticity measurements---The miniaturized PZT and PMN-PT PEMS that we have developed for sensor application can also be used for all-electrical cellular and molecular elasticity measurement. The miniaturized PEF will be better than atomic force microscopy (AFM) in that the PEF does not need the optical detection system that AFM needs and potentially can offer better resolutions than the AFM.
3. Piezoelectric Devices for Energy Harvesting
Piezoelectric devices are also excellent tools for converting mechanical vibrations to electricity. The primary goal of the study is to utilize the giant electric-field enhanced properties of piezoelectric freestanding films that we discovered recently to fabricate piezoelectric devices for energy harvesting. There are many portable low-energy consumption electronic devices such as cell phones and palm pilots that must be recharged on a daily basis. It is desirable if they can be recharged by harvesting vibration energies from the environment. Piezoelectric devices are ideal to convert ambient vibration energy (refrigerator, washer, dryer, etc.) into electricity. The same concept can also be applied to biomedical devices perhaps even for in-vivo applications to circumvent the need of replacing the batteries.
4. Nontoxic Quantum Dots for biomedical photovoltaic, photoluminescent, and electroluminescent applications
We have succeeded in developing an aqueous synthesis route to produce highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) that are capped with carboxylated molecules in one single step. The QDs have a wide excitation bandwidth with good emission intensity. Current emission wavelength ranges from 420 nm to 600 nm by varying particle size and compositions. The photoluminescence properties are stable over days in various biological solutions including phosphorous buffer solution and cytosol. Because of the carboxyl groups on the particle surface, the QDs can be easily bioconjugated for targeted imaging in biomedical applications. The present focus is to make ZnS-based nontoxic QDs for biomedical applications. Currently we are working with Prof. Elisabeth Papazoglu on the cytotoxicity of our QDs.
Active Research Projects:
Piezoelectric microcantilever sensors development, in-situ detection of proteins, DNA, viruses, cells, piezoelectric fingers, tissue elasticity imaging, non-toxic quantum dots development for bioimaging applications, piezoelectric microcantilever development for atomic, molecular, and cellular force measurements.
W. Y. Shih and D. Stroud, "Molecular-Field Approximation for Josephson-Coupled Superconducting Arrays in a Magnetic Field," Phys. Rev. B 28, 6575 (1983).
2. W. Y. Shih, C. Ebner and D. Stroud, "Frustration and Disorder in Granular Superconductors," Phys. Rev. B 30, 134 (1984).
3. W. Y. Shih and D. Stroud, "Superconducting Arrays in a Magnetic Field: Effects of Lattice Structure and a Possible Double Transition," Phys. Rev. B 30, 6774 (1984).
4. D. Stroud and W. Y. Shih, "Theory of Superconducting Arrays in a Magnetic Field," Materials Science Forum, 4, 177 (1985).
5. W. Y. Shih and D. Stroud, "Effects of Lattice Structure on 2d Superconducting Arrays in a Magnetic Field," Phys. Rev. B 32, 158 (1985).
6. W. Y. Shih and D. Stroud, "Melting of Stressed Metal Alloys and Grain Boundary Melting: Al1-xZnx," Phys. Rev. B 32, 7785 (1985).
7. W. Y. Shih and D. Stroud, "Heat of Solution of Stressed Metal Alloys and Grain Boundary Segregation: Al1-xZnx," Phys. Rev. B 32, 7779 (1985).
8. W. Y. Shih, J. P. Hirth and D. Stroud, "Twin Boundary Energies and Entropies in Simple Metals," Phys. Rev. B 34, 2895 (1986).
9. W. Y. Shih, I. A. Aksay and R. Kikuchi, "Phase Diagram of Charged Colloidal Particles," J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5127 (1987).
10. W. Y. Shih, I. A. Aksay and R. Kikuchi, "Reversible Growth Model: Cluster-Cluster Aggregation With Finite Binding Energies," Phys. Rev. A 36, 5015 (1987).
11. I. A. Aksay, W. Y. Shih, and M. Sarikaya, "Colloidal Processing of Ceramics with Ultrafine Particles," in Ultrastructure Processing of Advanced Ceramics, ed. by J. D. Mackenzie and D. R. Ulrich (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1988), p. 393.
12. W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih and I. A. Aksay, "Electrical Breakdown in 2-Dimensional Cluster-Cluster Aggregated networks," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. EA-17, 239 (1988).
13. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Stability of Binary Charged Colloidal Crystals," J. Chem. Phys. 90, 4506 (1989).
14. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Monte Carlo Simulation of Adsorption of Di-Block Copolymers," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 140, 431 (1989).
15. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Sintering Behavior of an Isolated Pore: Monte Carlo Simulation," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 138, 125 (1989).
16. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih and I. A. Aksay, "Stability of a Binary Colloidal Suspension and its Effect on Colloidal Processing", Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 155, 73 (1989).
17. W.-H. Shih, J. Liu, W. Y. Shih, S. I. Kim, M. Sarikaya, and I. A. Aksay, ˇ§Mechanical Properties of Colloidal Gels", Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 155, 83 (1989).
18. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih and I. A. Aksay, "Density Profiles of Semi-Dilute Polymer Solutions Near a Hard Wall: Monte Carlo Simulation", Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 153, 169 (1989).
19. W.-H. Shih, J. Liu, W. Y. Shih, M. Sarikaya, and I. A. Aksay, "Elastic Properties of Colloidal Gels," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. EA-20, 243 (1989).
20. J. Liu, M. Sarikaya, W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Role of Aggregation in the Formation of Colloidal Gold Particles", Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. EA-20, 147 (1989).
21. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Density Profile of Semi-Dilute Athermal Polymer Solutions Near a Hard Wall," Macromolecules 23, 3291(1990).
22. J. Liu, M. Sarikaya, W. Y. Shih and I. A. Aksay, "Fractal Colloidal Aggregates With Finite Interparticle Interactions: Energy Dependence of the Fractal Dimension", Phys. Rev. A 41, 3206 (1990).
23. J. Liu, M. Sarikaya, W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih and I. A. Aksay, "Nanodesigning of Multifunctional Ceramic Composites", Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 175, 3 (1990).
24. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Mechanical Properties of Colloidal gels subject to particle rearrangement", Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 195, 477 (1990).
25. W.-H. Shih, S. I. Kim, W. Y. Shih, C. H. Schilling and I. A. Aksay, "Consolidation of Colloidal Suspensions", Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 180, 167 (1990).
26. J. Liu, W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, M. Sarikaya, and I. A. Aksay, "Nonlinear Viscoelasticity and Restructuring in Colloidal Silica Gels", Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., EA-25, 43 (1990).
27. W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, S. I. Kim, J. Liu, and I. A. Aksay, "Scaling Behavior of Elastic Properties of Colloidal Gels," Phys. Rev. A 42, 4772 (1990).
28. J. Liu, W. Y. Shih, R. Kikuchi, and I. A. Aksay, "On the Clustering of Binary Colloidal Suspensions," J. Collod and Interf. Sci. 142, 369 (1991).
29. M. Yasrebi, W. Y. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Clustering of Binary Colloidal Suspensions: Experiment", J. Collod and Interf. Sci. 142, 357 (1991).
30. W. Y. Shih, J. Liu, W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Aggregation of Colloidal Particles With a Finite Interparticle Attraction Energy," J. Stat. Phys. 62, 961 (1991).
31. W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, S. I. Kim, and I. A. Aksay, "Equilibrium-State Density Profiles of Centrifuged Cakes," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77 540-46 (1994).
32. B. Keimer, J. W. Lynn, R. W. Erwin, F. Dogan, W. Y. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Vortex Structures in YBa2Cu3O7," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 6778 (1994).
33. B. Keimer, W. Y. Shih, R. W. Erwin, J. W. Lynn, F. Dogan, and I. A. Aksay, "Vortex lattice Symmetry and Electronic Structure in YBa2Cu3O7," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3459 (1994).
34. W. Y. Shih, W. H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Size Dependence of the Ferroelectric Transition of Small BaTiO3 Paticles: Effect of Depolarization," Phys. Rev. B 50, 15575 (1994).
35. W. Y. Shih. W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Elimination of an Isolate Pore: Effect of Grain Size," J. Mater. Res., 8, (1995).
36. B. Keimer, W. Y. Shih, I. A. Aksay, J. W. Lynn, R. W. Erwin, ˇ§Vortex Lattice Symmetry And Electronic-Structure In Yba2cu3o7 ˇV Reply,ˇ¨ Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(7) 1423 (1995).
37. W. Y. Shih, W. H. Shih, I. A. Aksay, ˇ§Heteroflocculation in Binary Colloidal Suspensions: Monte Carlo Simulations,ˇ¨ J. Am Ceram. Soc. 79(10) 2587(1996).
38. W. H. Shih, D. Kisailus D, W. Y. Shih, Y. H. Hu, J. Hughes, ˇ§Rheology and Consolidation of Colloidal Alumina-Coated Silicon Nitride Suspensions,ˇ¨ J. Am Ceram. Soc. 79(5) 1155 (1996).
39. W. H. Shih, D. J. Farrell, and W. Y. Shih, ˇ§Green-State Deformation of Boehmite-Coated Silicon Nitride Compacts,ˇ¨ Ceramic Transaction, 62, 233 (1996).
40. X. Liu, W. Y. Shih, and W. H. Shih, ˇ§Effects of Copper Coating on the Crystalline Structure of Fine Barium Titanate Particles,ˇ¨ J. Am Ceram. Soc. 80(11) 2781(1997).
41. W. Y. Shih, W. H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay ˇ§Scaling Analysis for the Axial Displacement and Pressure of Flextensional Transducers,ˇ¨ J. Am Ceram. Soc. 80(5) 1073(1997).
42. X. Liu, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Depolarization Effect on the Crystalline Structure of Fine BaTiO3 Particles,ˇ¨ Ceramic Transactions, Advances in Dielectric Ceramic Materials, 225-236 (1998).
43. X. Li, W. Y. Shih, I. A. Aksay, and W. H. Shih, ˇ§Electromechanical Behaviors of PZT/Brass Plate Unimorph,ˇ¨ J. Am Ceram. Soc., 82(7), 1733-40 (1999).
44. W. Y. Shih, W. H. Shih, I. A. Aksay, ˇ§Elastic and Yield Behavior of Strongly Flocculated Colloids,ˇ¨ J. Am Ceram. Soc. 82, 616 (1999).
45. C.-Y. Yang, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Gelation, Consolidation, and Rheological Properties of Boehmite-Coated Silicon Carbide Suspensions,ˇ¨ J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 83, 1879-84 (2000).
46. W. Y. Shih, X. Li, H. Gu, W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Simultaneous Liquid Viscosity and Density Determination Using Piezoelectric Unimorph Cantilevers," J. Appl. Phys., 89, 1497 (2001).
47. X. Li, J. S. Vartuli, D. L. Milius, I. A. Aksay, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Electromechanical Properties of a Ceramic d31-Gradient Flextensional Actuator,ˇ¨ J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 84 (5), 996 (2001).
48. C.-Y. Yang, Wan. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§The Effects of Boehmite-Coating Thickness on the Consolidation and Rheological Properties of Boehmite-Coated SiC Suspensions,ˇ¨ J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84(12), 2834 (2001).
49. C. Y. Yang, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Monte Carlo Simulations of the Nucleation and Growth Process of Colloidal Particles,ˇ¨ Phys. Rev. E., 64, 1403 (2001).
50. J. W. Yi, W. Y. Shih, and W. H. Shih, "Effect of length, width, and mode on the mass detection sensitivity of piezoelectric unimorph cantilevers," J Appl. Phys. 91 (3), 1680 (2002).
51. X. Li, W. Y. Shih, J. S. Vartuli, D. L. Milius, I. A. Aksay, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Effect of a Transverse Tensile Stress on the Electric-Field-Induced Domain Reorientation in Soft PZT: In-Situ XRD Study,ˇ¨ J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 85 (4): 844 (2002).
52. W. Y. Shih, X. Li, J. Vartuli, D. L. Milius, R. Prudˇ¦homme, I. A. Aksay, and W.-H. Shih, "Detection of Water-Ice Transition Using PZT/Brass Transducer," J Appl. Phys. 92 (1), 106 (2002).
53. H. Gu, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§A Single-Calcination Synthesis of Pyrochlore-Free 0.9PMN-0.1PT and PMN Ceramics by a Coating Method,ˇ¨ J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 86, 217-21 (2003)
54. J. W. Yi, W. Y. Shih, R. Mutharasan, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§In Situ Cell Detection Using Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate-Stainless Steel Cantilevers,ˇ¨ J. Appl. Phys., 93, 619 (2003).
55. W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, C.-Y. Yang, H. Gu, and J. W. Yi, ˇ§Nanocoating of Particulate Surface in Colloidal Processing for Piezoelectric Sensors Applications,ˇ¨ NATO Science Series, Nanostructured Materials and Coatings for Biomedical and Sensor Applications, Edited by Y. G. Gogotsi and I. V. Uvarova, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 377-394 (2003).
56. S.-H. Choi, W. Y. Shih, J. W. Yi, Y. H. Lee, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Pb(Zr.52Ti.48)O3 Thin Films on Metal Foils by rf Magnetron Sputtering,ˇ¨ Ceramic Transactions 136, 497-506 (2003).
57. H. Luo, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Synthesis of PMN and 65PMN-35PT Ceramics and Films by a new Suspension Method,ˇ¨ Ceramic Transactions 136, 251-260 (2003).
58. S. T. Szewczyk, Wei-Heng Shih and W. Y. Shih, ˇ§Exploring all-electrical soft-tissue stiffness measurement using piezoelectric unimorph cantilevers,ˇ¨ Bioengineering Conference, 2003 IEEE 29th Annual, Proceedings of 22-23 March 2003, 146 -147,
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/NEBC.2003.1216034
59. T. Patil, Q. Zhao, W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and R. Mutharasan, ˇ§Microporous Silica Modified with Alumina as CO2/N2 Separators,ˇ¨ Ceramic Transactions 152, 47-54 (2004).
60. Q. Zhao, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Thermal Stability and Structural Properties Evolution of Cured and Non-Cured ZrO2 and ZrO2-SiO2 Powders,ˇ¨ Ceramic Transactions 152, 37-46 (2004).
61. H. Gu, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Study of Mechanism of Pyrochlore-Free PMN-PT Powder Using a Coating Method,ˇ¨ Ceramic Transactions 152, 55-64 (2004).
62. H. Luo, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Comparison in the Coating of Mg(OH)2 on Micron-sized and Nanosize Nb2O5 Particles,ˇ¨ Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech., 1, 146-154 (2004).
63. W. Y. Shih, G. Campbell, J. W. Yi, R. Mutharasan, W. H. Shih, ˇ§Ultrasensitive Pathogen Quantification in Drinking Water Using Highly Piezoelectric Microcantilevers,ˇ¨ in Nanotechnology and the Environment -Applications and Implications, Sec. 5., edited by B. Karn, T. Masciangioli, W.-X. Zhang, V. Colvin, P. Alivasatos, (Oxford University Press, 2004).
64. J.-P. McGovern, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Real-Time Salmonella Detection Using Lead Zirconate Titanate-Titanium Microcantilevers,ˇ¨ Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 845, AA3.8.1 (2005).
65. H. Gu, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Low-Temperature Single Step Reactive Sintering of Lead Magnesium Niobate Using Mg(OH)2-Coated Nb2O5 Powders,ˇ¨ J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(6), 1435 (2005).
66. A. Markidou, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Soft-Materials Elastic and Shear Moduli Measurement Using Piezoelectric Cantilevers,ˇ¨ Rev. Sci. Ins. 76, 064302 (2005).
67. H. O. Yegingil, W. Y. Shih, W. Anjum, A. D. Brooks and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Soft Tissue Elastic Modulus Measurement and Tumor Detection Using Piezoelectric Fingers,ˇ¨ Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., (2006)
68. Q. Zhao, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Microporous-SiO2-Coated Piezoelectric Cantilever Sensor for Dimethyl Methylphosphonate (DMMP) Detection,ˇ¨ Sensors and Actuators B, 117, 74 (2006).
69. S. T. Szewczyk, W.Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Palpation-Like Soft Mateials Elastic Modulus Measurement Using Piezoelectric Cantilevers,ˇ¨ Rev. Sci. Ins., 77, 044302 (2006).
70. Invited book chapter, W. Y. Shih and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Nanosensors for Environmental Applications,ˇ¨ invited book chapter in Series on Nanotechnology for Life Sciences - Vol 5: Impact of Nanomaterials on Environment, ed. C. Kumar (Wiley-VCH), 2006. p271.
71. Z. Shen, W. Y. Shih and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Mass Detection Sensitivity of Piezoelectric Cantilevers with a Nonpiezoelectric Extension,ˇ¨ Rev. Sci. Ins., 77, 065101 (2006).
72. Z. Shen, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Self-Exciting, Self-Sensing PZT/SiO2 Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors with Femtogram/Hz Sensitivity,ˇ¨ Appl. Phys. Lett., 89, 023506 (2006).
73. J. Capobianco, W. Y. Shih, and W.-Heng Shih, ˇ§Methyltrimethoxysilane-Insulated Piezoelectric Microcantilevers for Direct, All-Electrical Bio-detection in Buffered Aqueous Solutionsˇ¨ Rev. Sci. Instr. 77, 125105 (2006).
74. Z. Shen, W. Y. Shih, and W-H. Shih, ˇ§Self-Exciting, Self-Sensing PZT/SiO2 Piezoelectric Microcantilever Mass Sensors with Femtogram/Hz Sensitivity,ˇ¨ IMAPS proceeding, (2006).
75. W. Y. Shih, H. Luo, H. Li, C. Martorano, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Sheet geometry enhanced giant piezoelectric coefficients,ˇ¨ Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 242913 (2006).
76. H. Yegingil, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§All-Electrical Palpation Shear Modulus and Elastic Modulus Measurement Using a Piezoelectric Cantilever with a Tip,ˇ¨ J. Appl. Phys. 101, 054510 (2007).
77. H. Li, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Synthesis and Characterization of Biocompatible Aqueous Carboxyl-capped CdS Quantum Dots,ˇ¨ IECR., 46, 2013 ( 2007).
78. Q. Zhu, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§In-Situ, In-Water Detection of Salmonella typhimurium Using Lead Titanate Zirconate/Gold-Coated Glass Cantilevers at any Dipping Depth,ˇ¨ Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 22, 3132 (2007).
79. Q. Zhu, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Real-Time, Label-Free, All-Electrical Detection of Salmonella typhimurium Using Lead Titanate Zirconate/Gold-Coated Glass Cantilevers at any Relative Humidity,ˇ¨ Sensors and Actuators B 125, 379ˇV388 (2007).
80. H. Li, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Non-Heavy Metal ZnS Quantum Dots with Bright Blue Photoluminescence by a One-Step Aqueous Synthesis,ˇ¨ Nanotechnology, 18, 205604 (2007)
81. J. Capobianco, W. Y. Shih, and W.-Heng Shih, ˇ§3-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane as Insulating Coating and Surface for Protein Immobilization for Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors,ˇ¨ Rev. Sci. Instr., 78, 046106 (2007).
82. H. Li, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Effect of Antimony Concentration on the Crystalline Structure, Dielectric, and Piezoelectric Properties of (Na0.5K0.5)0.945Li0.055Nb1-xSbxO3 Solid Solutions,ˇ¨ J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 90, 3070 (2007).
83. J.-P. McGovern, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§In-Situ Detection of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Using Fully Submersible, Self-Exciting, Self-Sensing PMN-PT/Sn Piezoelectric Microcantilevers,ˇ¨ The Analyst, 132, 777-783 (2007).
84. W.-S. Su, W. Y. Shih, H. Luo, Y.-F. Chen, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Non-180„a Domain Switching in PMN-PT Polycrystalline Sheets at Single Grain Level,ˇ¨ Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 112903 (2007)
85. Z. Shen, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Flexural Vibrations and Resonance of Piezoelectric Cantilevers with a Nonpiezoelectric Extension,ˇ¨ IEEE Trans. on Ultra. Ferro. Freq. Cont., in print (2007).
86. H. Luo, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Double Precursor Solution Coating approach for Low-Temperature Sintering of [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.63[PbTiO3]0.37 Solids,ˇ¨ J. Am. Ceram. Soc., (2007), DOI: 10.1111/j.1551-2916.2007.02072.x.
87. H. Yegingil, W. Y. Shih, and W.H. Shih, ˇ§Probing Bottom-Supported Inclusions in Model Tissues Using Piezoelectric Cantilevers,ˇ¨ Rev. Sci. Instr., (2007), DOI: 10.1063/1.2793502.
88. H. Li, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, ˇ§Stable aqueous ZnS quantum dots using (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane as capping molecule,ˇ¨ Nanotechnology, (2007), in print.
1. J. Vartuli, D. L. Milius, Xiaoping Li, W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, R. K. Prud'homme, and I. A. Aksay, "Multilayer Cermic Piezoelectric Laminates with Zinc Oxide Conductors," United States Patent #6,329,741 issued Dec. 11, 2001.
2. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and Z. Shen, ˇ§Piezoelectric Cantilever Sensor,ˇ¨ Patent Application No. PCT/US2004/036705, October 27, 2004.
3. W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, and H. Gu, ˇ§Method of Making Mixed Metal Oxide Ceramics,ˇ¨ US Patent Application No. 10/981,985, Nov. 6, 2004.
4. W.-H. Shih, H. Li, M. Schillo, and W. Y. Shih, ˇ§Synthesis of Water Soluble Nanocrystalline Quantum Dots and Uses Thereof,ˇ¨ US Patent application No. 60/573,804, May 24, 2005.
5. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, A. Markidou, S. T. Szewczyk, H. Yegingil, ˇ§All-electrical Piezoelectric Finger Sensor (PEFS) for Soft Material Stiffness Measurement,ˇ¨ International Patent Application No. PCT/US2004/036705, filed May, 2005.
6. DREX-1032US, Wei-Heng Shih, Hongyu Luo, Christian Martorano, and Wan Y. Shih, ˇ§Freestanding Films with Giant Electric-Field-Enhanced Piezoelectric Coefficients,ˇ¨ US patent application filed March 29, 2006.
7. Wan. Y. Shih, Wei-Heng Shih, and Joseph Capobianco, ˇ§Electrical Insulation of Micro- and Nano-Devices by Bi-Functional Thin Layers for In-Water Applications,ˇ¨ US Provision patent application No. 60/806,765, filed in July 7, 2006.
8. Wan Y. Shih, Wei-Heng Shih, Zuyan Shen, Huidong Li, and Xiaotong Gao, ˇ§A Sol-Gel Process for Thick Lead Zirconante Titanate Films With Ultra High Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties,ˇ¨ US provisional patents filed September, 2006.
9. Wei-Heng Shih, Wan Y. Shih, and Hakki Yegingil, ˇ§Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Device,ˇ¨ US provisional patents filed September, 2006.
10. Wan Y. Shih, Wei-Heng Shih, and Zuyan Shen, ˇ§Piezoelectric microcantilever for force detection and atomic force microscopy applications,ˇ¨ US provisional patent application filed September, 2006