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BIOMED Faculty Details: Wan Y. Shih, Ph.D.
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Wan Y. Shih, Ph.D.   [Details]  [Update My Profile]
Professor, School of Biomedical Engineering, Science & Health Systems
Professor, Materials Science and Engineering
Office: Monell 104  Email: wan.y.shih@drexel.edu
Phone: 215.895.2325 xN/A  Fax: 215.895.4983 xN/A
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Research Keywords:
Piezoelectric microcantilever biosensors development, piezoelectric finger development, quantum dots development, tissue elasticity imaging, piezoelectric microcantilever force probes.
Personal News:
RECOGNITIONS IN PEER-REVIEWED JOURNALS:
(“*” denotes the first author is a student of mine.)
1. The paper, J.-P. McGovern,* W. Y. Shih, R. Rest, M. Purohit, Y. Pandya, and W.-H. Shih, “Label-Free Flow-Enhanced Specific Detection of Bacillus anthracis Using a Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensor,” The Analyst, 133, 649-654 (2008), was featured in Chemical Technology News of the Royal Society of Chemistry on 3/08.
2. The paper, H. Li,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Synthesis and Characterization of Aqueous Carboxyl-Capped CdS Quantum Dots for Bioapplications,” IECR., 46, 2013 ( 2007) in the ACS journal, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, has been named one of the most-accessed articles in 2007 of that journal.
3. The paper, H. Li,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Non-Heavy Metal ZnS Quantum Dots with Bright Blue Photoluminescence by a One-Step Aqueous Synthesis,” Nanotechnology, 18, 205604 (2007) was one of the most downloaded articles for that journal in April, 2007.
4. The paper, H. Li,* W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, L. Chen, S.-J. Tseng, and S-C. Tang, “Transfection of Aqueous CdS Quantum Dots Using Polyethylenimine," Nanotechnology, 19, 475101(2008) was downloaded more than 250 times in the first two weeks after its publication, among the top 10% most downloaded articles.
5. The paper, G. H. T. Au,* W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, “Quantitative Assessment of Tn antigen in Breast Tissue Micro-arrays using CdSe Aqueous Quantum Dots,” Biomaterials, 35(9):2971-80 (2014), was downloaded 250 times in the first four months of 2014.
6. The paper, C.E. Kirimli,* W.-H. Shih, and W. Y. Shih, “DNA Hybridization Detection with 100 zM Sensitivity Using Piezoelectric Plate Sensors with Improved Noise-Reduction Algorithm,” Analyst, 139(11), 2754-63 (2014) was chosen by the journal, Analyst as a Hot Article and is featuring on the Analyst blog.

RECOGNITIONS IN THE MEDIA:
1. A coverage of the piezoelectric finger in the Jewish magazine, Inside, April 2013 issue, which can be found in http://www.jewishexponent.com/taking-the-alternative-route-to-medical-discoveries.
2. A USAirways Magazine coverage in the March 2013 issue. http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pace/usairways_march2013/#/134.
3. A WHYY/Newsworks coverage of the portable piezoelectric finger (PEF) breast cancer detector was broadcasted on 8/24/2012. The transcript can be found in http://www.newsworks.org/index.php/homepage-feature/item/43392-new-radiation-free-breast-exam-device-moves-closer-to-market?Itemid=1&linktype=hp_featured.
4. A news release about the portable piezoelectric finger (PEF) breast cancer detector can be found in physorg.com (http://www.physorg.com/news173004222.html) and in scribblewikiblog.com (http://www.scribblewikiblog.com/piezoelectric-fingers-key-in-new-breast-cancer-detector/).
5. The licensing of the piezoelectric finger (PEF) breast cancer detector to UE Life Sciences was reported by Flying Kite. http://www.flyingkitemedia.com/innovationnews/drexelportablebreastcancerscanner1214.aspx
6. Honorable Mention for the Keystone Edge 2009 Review of Movers and Shakers for the development of a more assessable and accurate breast cancer detector alongside University of Pennsylvania President, Amy Gutmann and others. http://www.keystoneedge.com/features/top10people1210.aspx
7. The piezoelectric finger (PEF) breast cancer detector was reported in Technology Transfer Tactic
http://www.technologytransfertactics.com/content/2010/12/08/drexel-licenses-hand-held-breast-cancer-screening-device/
8. Drexel Triangle reported the QED translational grant received by the piezoelectric finger (PEF) breast cancer detector project from the University Science Center on October 30, 2009. http://www.thetriangle.org/news/2009/10/30/News/Science.Center.Awards.Grants.To.Drexel.Professors-3818661.shtml.html.
Biosketch:
Dr. Wan Y. Shih is presently an Associate Professor of School of Biomedical Engineering, Science, and Health System at Drexel University. She received her BS in physics from Tsing-Hua University in Taiwan in 1976 and her PhD in Physics from Ohio State University in 1984. She was a Research Scientist in the Materials Institute at Princeton University and a Research Associate Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Drexel University prior to joining School of Biomedical Engineering at Drexel University in 2006. She is a recipient of the American Ceramic Society 1999 Edward C. Henry Electronics Division Best Paper Award. She became interested in translational biomedical research in ca 2000. Her goal in translational biomedical research has been to combine her physical science and engineering background with medicine to create revolutionary biomedical devices to fulfill unmet needs in medicine. Since 2000, she has amply demonstrated her ability to create original, groundbreaking biomedical technologies such as the groundbreaking piezoelectric finger (PEF) breast cancer detector that detects breast cancers undetectable by Mammography, an intraoperative breast cancer margin assessment tool, and the revolutionary PEPS molecular tests. She has had 100 scientific publications, 22 issued patents and 13 patent applications--including 10 PhD theses, 10 patents/patent applications and more than 40 scientific publications in PEPS and its predecessor, piezoelectric microcantilever sensor (PEMS) alone. In addition to the PEPS technology that Lenima has signed an option agreement with Drexel University, three of her other technologies have also been licensed.
Education:
EDUCATION:
1984 Ph.D in Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43210
Thesis Advisor: Prof. D. Stroud
Thesis Title: Theory of Superconducting Arrays in a Magnetic Field
1976 B.S. in Physics, Tsing-Hua University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan, ROC

EMPLOYMENT:
2006-present Associate Professor, School of Biomedical Engineering, Science & Health Systems, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1993-2006 Research Associate Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
1993-99 Research Scientist, Princeton Materials Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey.
1985-92 Research Scientist, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
1984-85 Postdoctoral Research Associate, Materials Research Laboratory and Department of Physics,
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
1982-84 Graduate Research Associate, Materials Research Laboratory and Department of
Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
1979-82 Graduate Teaching Associate, Department of Physics, Ohio State University
1978-79 Research assistant, Ion-Implantation Laboratory, Tsing-Hua University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan
1976-78 Physics Teacher, Hong-Zen Girls' Middle School, Chia-Yi, Taiwan.
Active Research Projects:
Piezoelectric Plate sensors development, in-situ detection of proteins, DNA, RNA, viruses, cells, piezoelectric fingers, tissue elasticity imaging, non-toxic quantum dots development for bioimaging applications, piezoelectric microcantilever development for atomic, molecular, and cellular force measurements.
Publications:
(“*” denotes the first author is a student of mine.)
1. C.E. Kirimli,* W.-H. Shih, and W. Y. Shih, “DNA Hybridization Detection with 100 zM Sensitivity Using Piezoelectric Plate Sensors with Improved Noise-Reduction Algorithm,” Analyst, 139(11), 2754-63 (2014).
2. G. H. T. Au,* W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, “Quantitative Assessment of Tn antigen in Breast Tissue Micro-arrays using CdSe Aqueous Quantum Dots,” Biomaterials, 35(9):2971-80 (2014),
3. G. H. T. Au,* W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, “High-Conjugation-Efficiency Aqueous CdSe Quantum Dots, ” The Analyst, 138, 7316-7325 (2013)
4. W. Wu,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Enhancing Detection Sensitivity of Piezoelectric Plate Sensor by Increasing Transverse Electromechanical Coupling Constant,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 064505 (2013).
5. C. E. Kirimli,* W.-H. Shih, and W. Y. Shih, “Temperature- and Flow-Enhanced Detection Specificity of Mutated DNA against Wild Type with Reporter Microspheres,” The Analyst, 138, 6117-6126 (2013).
6. X. Xu,* C. Gifford-Hollingsworth, R. Sensenig, W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, and A.D. Brooks, “Breast Tumor Detection using Piezoelectric Fingers: First Clinical Report,” J. Am. Coll. Surg., 216, 1168-73 (2013).
7. Q. Zhu,* W.-H. Shih, and W. Y. Shih, “Enhanced Dimethyl Methylphosphonate (DMMP) Detection Sensitivity by Lead-Magnesium Niobate-Lead-Titanate/Copper Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors via Young's Modulus Change,” Sensors and Actuators B, 182, 147-155 (2013).
8. M. Soylu,* W.-H. Shih; W. Y. Shih, “Insulation by Solution 3-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) Coating: Effect of pH, Water, and MPS Content,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 52, 2590−2597 (2013).
9. W. Wu,* C. Kirimli, W.-H. Shih, and W. Y. Shih, “Real-time, In Situ DNA Hybridization Detection with Attomolar Sensitivity without Amplification Using (Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65-(PbTiO3)0.35 Piezoelectric Plate Sensors,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 43, 391–399 (2013).
10. G. H. T. Au,* W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, L.Mejias, V. K. Swami, K. Wasko, and A. D. Brooks, “Assessing Breast CancerMargins Ex Vivo Using Aqueous Quantum-Dot-Molecular Probes,” International Journal of Surgical Oncology, 2012:861257 (2012), doi:10.1155/2012/861257.
11. X. Gao,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Flow Energy Harvesting Using Piezoelectric Cantilevers with Cylindrical Extension,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 60, 1116 (2013).
12. C.-Yi Hsieh, W.-H. Liu, Y.-F. Chen, W. Y. Shih, X. Gao, and W.-H. Shih “Voltage Generation of Piezoelectric Cantilevers by Laser Heating,” J. Appl. Phys., 112, 104506 (2012).
13. C.-Yi Hsieh, M.-L. Lu, J.-Y. Chen, Y.-T. Chen, Y.-F. Chen, W. Y. Shih and W.-H. Shih, “Single ZnO nanowire–PZT Optothermal Field Effect Transistors,” Nanotechnology 23, 355201-5, (2012).
14. C.-Yi Hsieh, Y.-T. Chen, W.-J. Tan and Y.-F. Chen, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Graphene-Lead Zirconate Titanate Optothermal Field Effect Transistors,” Apply. Phys. Lett. 100, 113507 (2012).
15. G. H. T. Au,* W. Y. Shih, S.-J. Tseng and W.-H. Shih, “Aqueous CdPbS quantum dots for near-infrared imaging,” Nanotechnology, 23, 275601-9 (2012).
16. X. Li,*W. Wu, Y. Chung, W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, “80 MHz intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) transducer using PMN-PT free-standing film,” IEEE Trans. on Ultra., Ferro., and Freq. Control, 58, 2281 – 2288 (2011).
17. J. Capobianco,* W. Y. Shih, G. Adams, and W.-H. Shih, “Label-free Growth Receptor-2 Detection and Dissociation Constant Assessment in Diluted Human Serum Using a Longitudinal Extension Mode of a Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensor,” Sensors and Actuators B, 160, 349-356 (2011).
18. L. Loo, W. Wu, W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, H. Borghaei, K. Pourrezaei, G. P. Adams, “A Rapid Method to Regenerate Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors (PEMS),” Sensors, 11, 5520-5528 (2011).
19. H. Li,* M. Li, P. I. Lelkes, Wan Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, “Cytotoxicity tests of water soluble ZnS and CdS quantum dot,” J. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 11, 3543–3551, (2011).
20. L. Loo, J. A. Capobianco, W. Wu, X. Gao, W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, K. Pourrezaei, M. K. Robinson, and Gregory P. Adams, “Highly Sensitive Detection of HER2 Extracellular Domain in the Serum of Breast Cancer Patients by Piezoelectric Microcantilevers,” Anal. Chem., 83, 3392–3397(2011).
21. X. Gao,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Vibration Energy Harvesting Using Piezoelectric Unimorph Cantilevers with Unequal Piezoelectric and Nonpiezoelectric Lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 233503 (2010).
22. H. Yegingil,* W.-H. Shih, and W. Y. Shih, “Probing Model Tumor Interfacial Properties Using Piezoelectric Cantilevers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 81, 095104 (2010).
23. J. Capobianco,* W.-H. Shih, J.-H. Leu, C.F. Lo, and W. Y. Shih, “Label Free Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Using Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 26, 964–969 (2010).
24. H. Li,* W. Y. Shih, and W.H. Shih, “Lead-Free Piezoelectric Freestanding Films with Sheet Geometry-Enhanced High-Field Piezoelectric Coefficients,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 93[7], 1852-1855 (2010)
25. Qiang Zhao, Wan Y. Shih, Hsiao-Lan Chang, and Wei-Heng Shih, "Redox Activity and NO Storage Capacity of MnOx-ZrO2 with Enhanced Thermal Stability at Elevated Temperatures." Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 49(4), 1725-1731 (2010).
26. H. Li,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Highly Photoluminescent and Stable Aqueous ZnS Quantum Dots ,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 49, 578–582 (2010).
27. J.-P. McGovern,* W.-H. Shih, Richard Rest, Mitali Purohit, Mark Mattiucci, Kambiz Pourrezaei, Banu Onaral, and W. Y. Shih, “Array PZT/glass piezoelectric microcantilevers for real-time detection of Bacillus anthracis with 10 spores/ml sensitivity and 1/1000 selectivity in bacterial mixtures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 125104 (2009).
28. Adam B. Nover, Shami Jagtap, Waqas Anjum, Hakki Yegingil, Wan Y. Shih, Wei-Heng Shih and Ari D Brooks, “Modern Breast Cancer Detection: A Technological Review," International Journal of Biomedical Imaging, Vol. 2009, 902326-902339 (2009).
29. X. Gao,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Induced Voltage of Piezoelectric Unimorph Cantilevers of Different Nonpiezoelectric/Piezoelectric Length Ratios,” Smart Materials and Structures, 18 (2009) 125018.
30. H. Li,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Synthesis of Na0.5K0.5NbO3 Piezoelectrics by a Solution Coating Approach,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol., 6, 205–215 (2009).
31. Q. Zhao,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Effects of Processing Parameters on the Morphology of Precipitated Manganese Oxide Powders,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 48, 1490–1494 (2009).
32. Q. Zhu,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Enhanced Detection Resonance Frequency Shift of a Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensor by a DC Bias Electric Field in Humidity Detection,” Sensors and Actuators, B 138, 1 (2009).
33. C.-Y. Hsieh,* Y.-F. Chen, W. Y. Shih, Q. Zhu, and W.-H. Shih, “Direct Observation of Two-Step Polarization Reversal by an Opposite Field in a Substrate-Free Piezoelectric Thin Sheet,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 94, 131101 (2009).
34. H. Li,* W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, L. Chen, S.-J. Tseng, and S-C. Tang, “Transfection of Aqueous CdS Quantum Dots Using Polyethylenimine," Nanotechnology, 19, 475101(2008).
35. W. Y. Shih and Wei-Heng Shih, ‘Response to “Comment on ‘Mechanism of flexural resonance frequency shift of a piezoelectric microcantilever sensor during humidity detection’,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 096102 (2008).
36. W. Y. Shih, Q. Zhu, and W.-H. Shih, “Length and Thickness Dependence of Longitudinal Flexural Resonance Frequency Shifts of a Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensor due to Young’s Modulus Change,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 074503 (2008).
37. J. Capobianco,* W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, Q.-A. Yuan, and G. P. Adams, “Label-free, All-electrical, In-Situ Human Epidermal Growth Receptor-2 Detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 076101 (2008).
38. Q. Zhu,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Mechanism of Flexural Resonance Frequency Shift of a Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensor during Humidity Detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183505 (2008).
39. J.-P. McGovern,* W.Y. Shih, R. Rest, M. Purohit, Y. Pandia, and W.-H. Shih, “Label-Free Flow-Enhanced Specific Detection of Bacillus anthracis Detection Using a Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensor,” The Analyst, 132, 649-654 (2008).
40. Q. Zhu,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Mechanism of the Flexural Resonance Frequency Shift of a Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensor in a DC Bias Electric Field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 033503 (2008).
41. H. Li,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Stable aqueous ZnS quantum dots using (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane as capping molecule,” Nanotechnology, 18, 495605 (2007).
42. H. Yegingil,* W. Y. Shih, and W.H. Shih, “Probing Bottom-Supported Inclusions in Model Tissues Using Piezoelectric Cantilevers,” Rev. Sci. Instr., 78, 115101 (2007).
43. H. Luo,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Double Precursor Solution Coating approach for Low-Temperature Sintering of [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.63[PbTiO3]0.37 Solids,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 90, 3825 (2007).
44. Z. Shen,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Flexural Vibrations and Resonance of Piezoelectric Cantilevers with a Nonpiezoelectric Extension,” IEEE Trans. on Ultra. Ferro. Freq. Cont., 54, 2001 (2007).
45. W.-S. Su,* W. Y. Shih, H. Luo, Y.-F. Chen, and W.-H. Shih, “Non-180 Domain Switching in PMN-PT Polycrystalline Sheets at Single Grain Level,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 112903 (2007).
46. J.-P. McGovern,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “In-Situ Detection of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Using Fully Submersible, Self-Exciting, Self-Sensing PMN-PT/Sn Piezoelectric Microcantilevers,” The Analyst, 132, 777-783 (2007).
47. H. Li,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Effect of Antimony Concentration on the Crystalline Structure, Dielectric, and Piezoelectric Properties of (Na0.5K0.5)0.945Li0.055Nb1-xSbxO3 Solid Solutions,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 90, 3070 (2007).
48. J. Capobianco,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-Heng Shih, “3-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane as Insulating Coating and Surface for Protein Immobilization for Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instr., 78, 046106 (2007).
49. H. Li,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Non-Heavy Metal ZnS Quantum Dots with Bright Blue Photoluminescence by a One-Step Aqueous Synthesis,” Nanotechnology, 18, 205604 (2007)
50. Q. Zhu,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Real-Time, Label-Free, All-Electrical Detection of Salmonella typhimurium Using Lead Titanate Zirconate/Gold-Coated Glass Cantilevers at any Relative Humidity,” Sensors and Actuators B, 125, 379–388 (2007).
51. Q. Zhu,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “In-Situ, In-Water Detection of Salmonella typhimurium Using Lead Titanate Zirconate/Gold-Coated Glass Cantilevers at any Dipping Depth,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 22, 3132 (2007).
52. H. Li,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Synthesis and Characterization of Biocompatible Aqueous Carboxyl-capped CdS Quantum Dots,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 46, 2013 ( 2007).
53. H. Yegingil,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “All-Electrical Palpation Shear Modulus and Elastic Modulus Measurement Using a Piezoelectric Cantilever with a Tip,” J. Appl. Phys., 101, 054510 (2007).
54. W. Y. Shih,* H. Luo, H. Li, C. Martorano, and W.-H. Shih, “Sheet geometry enhanced giant piezoelectric coefficients,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 89, 242913 (2006).
55. J. Capobianco,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-Heng Shih, “Methyltrimethoxysilane-Insulated Piezoelectric Microcantilevers for Direct, All-Electrical Bio-detection in Buffered Aqueous Solutions” Rev. Sci. Instr., 77, 125105 (2006).
56. Q. Zhao,* Q. Zhu, W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, “Array adsorbent-coated lead zirconate titanate (PZT)/stainless steel cantilevers for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) detection,” Sensors and Actuators B 117, 74–79(2006).
57. Z. Shen,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Self-Exciting, Self-Sensing PZT/SiO2 Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors with Femtogram/Hz Sensitivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 89, 023506 (2006).
58. Z. Shen,* W. Y. Shih and W.-H. Shih, “Mass Detection Sensitivity of Piezoelectric Cantilevers with a Nonpiezoelectric Extension,” Rev. Sci. Ins., 77, 065101 (2006).
59. S. T. Szewczyk,* W.Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Palpation-Like Soft Mateials Elastic Modulus Measurement Using Piezoelectric Cantilevers,” Rev. Sci. Ins., 77, 044302 (2006).
60. A. Markidou,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Soft-Materials Elastic and Shear Moduli Measurement Using Piezoelectric Cantilevers,” Rev. Sci. Ins. 76, 064302 (2005).
61. H. Gu,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Low-Temperature Single Step Reactive Sintering of Lead Magnesium Niobate Using Mg(OH)2-Coated Nb2O5 Powders,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(6), 1435 (2005).
62. H. Luo,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Comparison in the Coating of Mg(OH)2 on Micron-sized and Nanosize Nb2O5 Particles,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech., 1[2], 146-154 (2004).
63. J. W. Yi,* W. Y. Shih, R. Mutharasan, and W.-H. Shih, “In Situ Cell Detection Using Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate-Stainless Steel Cantilevers,” J. Appl. Phys., 93, 619 (2003).
64. H. Gu,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “A Single-Calcination Synthesis of Pyrochlore-Free 0.9PMN-0.1PT and PMN Ceramics by a Coating Method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 86[2], 217-21 (2003).
65. W. Y. Shih, X. Li, J. Vartuli, D. L. Milius, R. Prud’homme, I. A. Aksay, and W.-H. Shih, "Detection of Water-Ice Transition Using PZT/Brass Transducer," J. Appl. Phys. 92 (1), 106 (2002).
66. X. Li,* W. Y. Shih, J. S. Vartuli, D. L. Milius, I. A. Aksay, and W.-H. Shih, “Effect of a Transverse Tensile Stress on the Electric-Field-Induced Domain Reorientation in Soft PZT: In-Situ XRD Study,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 85 (4): 844 (2002).
67. J. W. Yi,* W. Y. Shih, and W. H. Shih, "Effect of length, width, and mode on the mass detection sensitivity of piezoelectric unimorph cantilevers," J. Appl. Phys. 91 (3), 1680 (2002).
68. C. Y. Yang,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Monte Carlo Simulations of the Nucleation and Growth Process of Colloidal Particles,” Phys. Rev. E., 64, 1403 (2001).
69. C.-Y. Yang,* Wan. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “The Effects of Boehmite-Coating Thickness on the Consolidation and Rheological Properties of Boehmite-Coated SiC Suspensions,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84(12), 2834 (2001).
70. X. Li,* J. S. Vartuli, D. L. Milius, I. A. Aksay, W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Electromechanical Properties of a Ceramic d31-Gradient Flextensional Actuator,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 84 (5), 996 (2001).
71. W. Y. Shih, X. Li, H. Gu, W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Simultaneous Liquid Viscosity and Density Determination Using Piezoelectric Unimorph Cantilevers," J. Appl. Phys., 89, 1497 (2001).
72. C.-Y. Yang,* W. Y. Shih, and W.-H. Shih, “Gelation, Consolidation, and Rheological Properties of Boehmite-Coated Silicon Carbide Suspensions,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 83[8], 1879-84 (2000).
73. X. Li,* W. Y. Shih, I. A. Aksay, and W. H. Shih, “Electromechanical Behaviors of PZT/Brass Plate Unimorph,” J. Am Ceram. Soc., 82(7), 1733-40 (1999).
74. W. Y. Shih, W. H. Shih, I. A. Aksay, “Elastic and Yield Behavior of Strongly Flocculated Colloids,” J. Am Ceram. Soc. 82, 616 (1999).
75. W. Y. Shih, W. H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay “Scaling Analysis for the Axial Displacement and Pressure of Flextensional Transducers,” J. Am Ceram. Soc. 80(5) 1073(1997).
76. X. Liu,* W. Y. Shih, and W. H. Shih, “Effects of Copper Coating on the Crystalline Structure of Fine Barium Titanate Particles,” J. Am Ceram. Soc. 80(11) 2781(1997).
77. W. H. Shih, D. Kisailus D, W. Y. Shih, Y. H. Hu, J. Hughes, “Rheology and Consolidation of Colloidal Alumina-Coated Silicon Nitride Suspensions,” J. Am Ceram. Soc. 79(5) 1155 (1996).
78. W. Y. Shih, W. H. Shih, I. A. Aksay, “Heteroflocculation in Binary Colloidal Suspensions: Monte Carlo Simulations,” J. Am Ceram. Soc. 79(10) 2587(1996).
79. B. Keimer, W. Y. Shih, I. A. Aksay, J. W. Lynn, R. W. Erwin, “Vortex Lattice Symmetry And Electronic-Structure In Yba2Cu3O7 – Reply,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(7) 1423 (1995).
80. W. Y. Shih. W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Elimination of an Isolate Pore: Effect of Grain Size," J. Mater. Res., 8[4], (1995).
81. W. Y. Shih, W. H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Size Dependence of the Ferroelectric Transition of Small BaTiO3 Paticles: Effect of Depolarization," Phys. Rev. B 50, 15575 (1994).
82. B. Keimer, W. Y. Shih, R. W. Erwin, J. W. Lynn, F. Dogan, and I. A. Aksay, "Vortex lattice Symmetry and Electronic Structure in YBa2Cu3O7," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3459 (1994).
83. B. Keimer, J. W. Lynn, R. W. Erwin, F. Dogan, W. Y. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Vortex Structures in YBa2Cu3O7," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 6778 (1994).
84. W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, S. I. Kim, and I. A. Aksay, "Equilibrium-State Density Profiles of Centrifuged Cakes," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77[2] 540-46 (1994).
85. W. Y. Shih, J. Liu, W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Aggregation of Colloidal Particles With a Finite Interparticle Attraction Energy," J. Stat. Phys. 62, 961 (1991).
86. M. Yasrebi, W. Y. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Clustering of Binary Colloidal Suspensions: Experiment", J. Collod and Interf. Sci. 142, 357 (1991).
87. J. Liu, W. Y. Shih, R. Kikuchi, and I. A. Aksay, "On the Clustering of Binary Colloidal Suspensions," J. Collod and Interf. Sci. 142, 369 (1991).
88. W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, S. I. Kim, J. Liu, and I. A. Aksay, "Scaling Behavior of Elastic Properties of Colloidal Gels," Phys. Rev. A 42, 4772 (1990).
89. J. Liu, M. Sarikaya, W. Y. Shih and I. A. Aksay, "Fractal Colloidal Aggregates With Finite Interparticle Interactions: Energy Dependence of the Fractal Dimension", Phys. Rev. A 41, 3206 (1990).
90. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Density Profile of Semi-Dilute Athermal Polymer Solutions Near a Hard Wall," Macromolecules 23, 3291(1990).
91. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Stability of Binary Charged Colloidal Crystals," J. Chem. Phys. 90, 4506 (1989).
92. W. Y. Shih, I. A. Aksay and R. Kikuchi, "Reversible Growth Model: Cluster-Cluster Aggregation With Finite Binding Energies," Phys. Rev. A 36, 5015 (1987).
93. W. Y. Shih, I. A. Aksay and R. Kikuchi, "Phase Diagram of Charged Colloidal Particles," J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5127 (1987).
94. W. Y. Shih, J. P. Hirth and D. Stroud, "Twin Boundary Energies and Entropies in Simple Metals," Phys. Rev. B 34, 2895 (1986).
95. W. Y. Shih and D. Stroud, "Heat of Solution of Stressed Metal Alloys and Grain Boundary Segregation: Al1-xZnx," Phys. Rev. B 32, 7779 (1985).
96. W. Y. Shih and D. Stroud, "Melting of Stressed Metal Alloys and Grain Boundary Melting: Al1-xZnx," Phys. Rev. B 32, 7785 (1985).
97. W. Y. Shih and D. Stroud, "Effects of Lattice Structure on 2d Superconducting Arrays in a Magnetic Field," Phys. Rev. B 32, 158 (1985).
98. W. Y. Shih and D. Stroud, "Superconducting Arrays in a Magnetic Field: Effects of Lattice Structure and a Possible Double Transition," Phys. Rev. B 30, 6774 (1984).
99. W. Y. Shih, C. Ebner and D. Stroud, "Frustration and Disorder in Granular Superconductors," Phys. Rev. B 30, 134 (1984).
100. W. Y. Shih and D. Stroud, "Molecular-Field Approximation for Josephson-Coupled Superconducting Arrays in a Magnetic Field," Phys. Rev. B 28, 6575 (1983).
Patents:
1. J. Vartuli, D. L. Milius, Xiaoping Li, W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, R. K. Prud'homme, and I. A. Aksay, "Multilayer Cermic Piezoelectric Laminates with Zinc Oxide Conductors," United States Patent No. 6,329,741 issued Dec. 11, 2001.
2. W.-H. Shih, H. Li, M. Schillo, and W. Y. Shih, “Synthesis of Water Soluble Nanocrystalline Quantum Dots and Uses Thereof,” US Patent No. 7,335,345, February 26, 2008.
3. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and Z. Shen, “Piezoelectric Cantilever Sensors,” US Patent No. 7,458,265, issued December 2, 2008.
4. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, A. Markidou, S. Szewczyk, H. Yegingil, “All Electrical Piezoelectric Finger Sensor (PEFS),” US Patent No. 7,497,133, March 3, 2009.
5. W.-H. Shih, H. Li, and W. Y. Shih, “Water Soluble Quantum Dots,” US Patent No. 7,597.870, October 6, 2009.
6. W.-H. Shih, H. Luo, C. Martorano, and W. Y. Shih, “Freestanding Films with Field-Enhanced Piezoelectric Coefficients,” US patent No. 7,744,773, June 29, 2010.
7. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, A. Markidou, S. Szewczyk, H. Yegingil, “All Electrical Piezoelectric Finger Sensor (PEFS),” US Patent No. 7,779,707, August 24, 2010.
8. W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, and H. Gu, “Method of Making Mixed Metal Oxide Ceramics,” US Patent No. 7,785,527, August 31, 2010.
9. W.-H. Shih, H. Li, and W. Y. Shih, “Water Soluble Nanocrystalline Quantum Dots,” US utility patent No. 7976819, July 12, 2011.
10. Wan Y. Shih, Wei-Heng Shih, Zuyan Shen, and Qing Zhu, “Piezoelectric Microcantilevers and Uses in Atomic Force Microscopy,” US patent No. 7,992,431, August 9, 2011.
11. W.-H. Shih, H. Yegingil, and W. Y. Shih, “Energy Harvesting Device”, US Patent No. 8,110,964, February 7, 2012.
12. Wan Y. Shih, Wei-Heng Shih, and Joseph A. Capobianco, “Electrical Insulation of Devices with Thin Layers,” US Patent No. 8,197,757, June 12, 2012.
13. Wei-Heng Shih, Huidong Li, and Wan Y. Shih, “Lead-free piezoelectric ceramic films and a method for making thereof,” US patent No. 8,241,569, August 14, 2012.
14. W.-H. Shih, H. Yegingil, and W. Y. Shih, “Energy Harvesting Device”, US Patent no. 8,421,313, April 16, 2013.
15. Wan Y. Shih and Wei-Heng Shih, “A Hand-Held Phase-Shift Detector for Sensor Applications,” US patent No. 8,456,150, June 4, 2013.
16. Wei-Heng Shih, Huiming Gu, Wan Y. Shih, “Method of Making Mixed Oxide ceramics,” US patent No. 8,475,706 B2, July 2, 2013.
17. Wan Y. Shih and Wei-Heng Shih, “Specificity and Sensitivity Enhancement in Cantilever Sensing,” US patent No. 8,481,335, July 9, 2013.
18. Wei-Heng Shih, Wan Y. Shih, Hui Li, “Synthesis of Water Soluble Non-Toxic Nanocrystalline Quantum Dots and Uses Thereof,” US Patent No. 8,491,818, July 23, 2013.
19. Wei-Heng Shih, Huidong Li, and Wan Y. Shih, “Lead-free piezoelectric ceramic films and a method for making thereof,” US patent No. 8,496,870, July 30, 2013.
20. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, A. Markidou, S. Szewczyk, H. Yegingil, “All Electrical Piezoelectric Finger Sensor (PEFS),” US Patent No. 8,549,933, October 8, 2013.
21. Wan Y. Shih, Wei-Heng Shih, Hakki Yegingil, and Ari Brooks, “System and method for evaluating tissue,” US Patent No. 8,562,546, B2, October 22, 2013.
22. Wei-Heng Shih, Wan Y. Shih, and Huiding Li, “Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramic Films and a Method for Making Thereof,” US Patent No. 8,715,575, May 6, 2014.


PATENT APPLICATIONS:
23. Wan Y. Shih, Wei-Heng Shih, Zuyan Shen, Qing. Zhu, Joseph Capobianco, and John-Paul-McGovern, “Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors for Biosensing,” International patent application No. PCT/US07/85771, filed on November 28, 2007.
24. Wan Y. Shih, Wei-Heng Shih, Zuyan Shen, Huidong Li, and Xiaotong Gao, “Sol-Gel Precursors and Methods for Making Lead-Based Perovskite Films,” International Application No. PCT/US2007/083767, filed November 2007.
25. W.-H. Shih, H. Li, M. Schillo, and W. Y. Shih, “Water Soluble Quantum Dots” US patent application No. 11/968,228, January 2, 2008.
26. W.-H. Shih, H. Li, W. Y. Shih, A. Kopek, I. MacDonald, Yu-Chieh Lu, and Ryan O’Malley, “Water-soluble Nanocrystalline Quantum Dots Capable of Near Infrared Emissions,” U.S. Patent Application No. 12/428,000, filed April 22, 2009.
27. Wan Y. Shih, Joseph Capobianco, Hossein Borghaei, “Methods for Immune Response Detection,” US patent application No. 61/249,950, filed October 8, 2009.
28. Wan Y. Shih, Joseph Capobianco, and Wei-Heng Shih, “Determination of Dissociation Constants Using Piezoelectric Microcantilevers,” US patent application No. 61/249,924, filed October 8, 2009.
29. Wan Y. Shih, John-Paul McGovern, and Wei-Heng Shih, “Flow-Based Enhancement of Specificity for Label-Free Biochemical Assays,” US patent application, filed February 24, 2010.
30. W.-Heng Shih, H. Luo, C. Martorano, and W. Y. Shih, “Freestanding Films with Field-Enhanced Piezoelectric Coefficients,” US Divisional Patent Application No. 12/784,173, May 20, 2010.
33. Wan Y. Shih, Giang Au, Wei-Heng Shih, Ari Brooks, and Vanlila Swami, “Clear Margin Determination During Surgery,” International Patent Application No. PCT/US2012/039522/, filed May 25, 2012.

US PROVISIONAL PATENT APPLICATIONS:
34. Wan Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, W. Wu, M. Soylu, C. kirimli, H. Guo, S. Joshi, Y.-H. Su, “Piezoelectric Plate Sensor and Uses Thereof,” US provisional patent No. 61/920,194, filed December 23, 2013.
35. Wan Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, X. Xu, “Depth Measurement in Tissue using Piezoelectric Sensors Having Different Probe Sizes,” US provisional patent No. 615/925,203, filed January 8, 2014.
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